Transformation and Continuity in Lakota Culture:
International Perspectives on Race and Ethnicity: Abstract This annotated bibliography includes an introductory essay exploring racial and ethnic issues in international contexts--excluding the U. The resources are organized by continent and type of the literature. Introductory Essay Issues of race and ethnicity dominate the academic discourse of many disciplines, including the field of multicultural education, and the socio-political arena.
Heightened interest in these issues is in response to the demographic reality of increasing racial and ethnic diversity in the United States and other nations. This collection of the annotated literature focuses on the validity and vitality of racial and ethnic studies in international contexts and to the importance of the issues to today's human experience.
This introductory essay explores the concepts of race and ethnicity, construction of racial and ethnic differences, and the connection between socially-constructed differences and conflicts in socio-political contexts. The essay will be followed by a limited annotated bibliography of 20 books and 13 journal articles organized by geographic division and type of the literature book or article.
Most of the literature included in this essay is concerned with issues of race and ethnicity emerging within the last two centuries. Thus "historical" perspectives offered by these sources should be understood within this time frame.
Definitions of Race and Ethnicity The use of the terms "race" and "ethnicity" is varied. The two terms are misused as if they are identical. The term "race" is based on the premise of biological and physical differences.
According to Robb"the concept of 'race' included any [essentializing] of groups of people which held them to display inherent, heritable, persistent or predictive characteristics, and which thus had a biological or quasi-biological basis" p.
Classification of humans into distinct racial groups claims to draw on scientific facts. First, racial classification assumes that pure phenotypes exist.
This premise is difficult to prove, even if one accepts the conjecture that pure phenotypes had existed in the early stage of human existence. Biological intermixing between people of apparently different phenotypes complicates today's "scientific" attempt to sort people out purely by phenotypic traits.
Brazil's complicated racial categories based on skin shade Stam do not coincide with the black-white-colored paradigm sustained in South African apartheid racial discourse Deng, This is reflected in the popular ideology, "Money whitens," whereby a darker-skinned person may become "white" based on economic status Hanchard, ; Reichmann, ; Twine, Both of these problems are apparent in Mexican society where scholars have noted that it is often impossible to distinguish between Indians and Mestizos phenotypically.
Instead, individuals of both groups are more commonly categorized according to social and cultural traits. Furthermore, the work of Nutini demonstrates that it is common for Indians to "become" Mestizo by mere acquisition of social and cultural traits regardless of phenotypic characteristics.
Despite the impossibility of scientifically constructing racial classifications based on phenotypic attributes, claims of racial classifications based on pseudo-science and ideology have been used to promote notions of racial differences and superiority, justifying domination of certain "racial" groups over others.
This is done despite the fact that genetic differences among groups with different phenotypic attributes are in fact minor and do not account for much difference in human behavior Unander, Distinguished from the concept of "race," "ethnicity" is a culturally-derived term.
Deng defined ethnicity as an "embodiment of values, institutions, and patterns of behavior, a composite whole representing a people's historical experience, aspirations, and worldview" p. Ethnic classification, either externally imposed and intrinsically engendered, often defines people's membership to a group.
Aside from social constructs, ethnicity is innately more central to human experience and identity than race. In turn, ethnic distinctiveness is more likely to invoke an innate sense of peoplehood. Ethnic uniqueness thus provides an immediate identity marker both within a group and between groups.
As is the case with racial categorization, ethnic categories are often perceived or discussed as though they are fixed and unchanging entities.
However, because ethnicity incorporates language, religion, demarcations of territory, and other cultural traits, changes in people's affinity with any of them can occur over time.
Thus ethnic categorization should be viewed as somewhat subjective and dependent upon human perception and identity. In the milieu of fluidity ethnic consciousness and "way of life" may be created and reinforced to maintain the status quo at certain times and be transformed to embrace other social constructs at other times.
Provided that choice, process, and change are all central to ethnic identity, consciousness, and categorization, ethnicity must not be viewed as entirely objective, permanent, or static Haug, Social Construction of Racial and Ethnic Differences and Hierarchy Differences among people, whether physical or cultural, exist as part of human experience.
The recognition of differences may be intensified as contacts between different groups grow. Some of the differences may be absorbed into the innate fabric of a society.
Socially constructed meanings are often added to perceived or actual differences whereby these differences become signifiers for people's worth in a society. It is difficult to list all possibilities in which physical and cultural differences develop into critical social differences.
In many cases some groups gain privileges over others on the basis of their racial or ethnic differences, perceived or actual.
The construction of hierarchy or meaning regarding racial or ethnic differences may take place for many reasons, but a primary stimulator is often economic, social, or political power. Competition for resources or the drive for greater privilege often underlies the social construction of racial or ethnic hierarchies.
These hierarchical classifications are then utilized to establish, develop, or maintain dominance or hegemony of a group over others.Building Blocks: The First Steps of Creating a Multicultural Classroom by Larri Fish of Siena College.
Discovering diversity takes creativity, extra effort, diligence, and courage on the teacher's part. Multiculturalism and The Politics of Recognition: An Essay with Commentary [Charles Taylor, Amy Gutmann] on schwenkreis.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
Can a democratic society treat all its members as equals and also recognize their specific cultural identities? Should it try to ensure the survival of specific cultural groups? Is political recognition of ethnicity or gender essential.
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